JIWO Women's wing of JITO

The passions (kashaya) means internal desires which move us in all kind of activities in our daily life. The word kashaya can be broken down into kasha, meaning worldly life and aya, meaning gain. Thus the literal meaning of kashaya is to gain worldly life again. This means that as long as we have the kashayas, the cycle of birth and death will continue. There are four types of kashayas (passions) nnamely: krodha (anger), mana (ego), maya (deceit), lobha (greed). These four can be grouped into two categories: 1) rag (attachment), 2) dwesh (hatred). Rag is formed from maya and lobha and dwesh is formed from krodh and mana.

Spiritually, our goal should be to get rid of worldly life and become liberated. But, when we live in attachment and hatred or passions for worldly objects, we hinder the spiritual progress of the soul. Until we are under the influence of passions, our intellect becomes tainted and we may become vicious in our actions. Thus, the passions are the greatest internal enemies of the soul and we should save or protect ourselves from their influences. Affinity, affection, hostility, dislike, or disgust, etc., are the roots of passion. We develop affinity or hostility for things due to our distorted attitude, ignorance, and false perception and knowledge. We, humans, are opportunistic and when we are deprived of what we want then we react with anger. In the same way, if we do not get the fame we think we deserve, our ego gets hurt and we react irrational. Therefore in reality even the anger and ego are caused by the liking and liking is nothing but one form of an attachment (rag). In other word, attachment is the single root of our all passions. So, those who have conquered attachment that means they don’t have any attachment have conquered everything. It is for that reason that the Lord Jin is called Vitaragi, one who has no attachment.

Passions are caused by the maturing of previously accumulated Mohniya Karma. Therefore, instead of reacting with more passions to the situations we should stay tranquil or calm in order to break the cycle which causes the new Mohniya karmas. Our aim should be to stop the new Mohniya karmas from coming in and get over the effect of old karmas calmly. If we can do that, the door to the liberation will open up.

Each of the four passions, krodh, man, maya, and lobha are further sub-divided into four types depending upon their intensity. They are:

  1. Anantanubadh (extremely severe): This obstructs the right belief and conduct and until it is destroyed, we cannot attain the right belief or conduct. Its effects pursue through a long long time and always operate with Darshan Mohniya Karma.

  2. Apratyakhanavarana (severe): This obstructs the partial renunciation but does not affect the true belief. While it is active, we cannot take the vows even in a limited form even though we know we should take vow for our upliftment.

  3. Pratyakhanavarana (moderate): This obstructs the total renunciation, but does not affect the right belief and partial renunciation. While it is active the partial renunciation is possible by us, but the total renunciation (becoming a monk or nun) is not.

  4. Sanjvalana (slight): This obstructs the attainment of total right conduct, but does not affect the right belief and total renunciation. While it is active, initiation into monkshood or nunhood and spiritual progress are possible, but becoming Vitragi is not possible

There are also nine pseudo-passions (No-kashayas) which trigger our passions. They are:

  1. Hashya - laughing or joking

  2. Rati - pleasure for sensual activities

  3. Arati - displeasure for sensual activities

  4. Shoka - sorrow

  5. Bhaya - fear

  6. Jugupsa - disgust

  7. Prurushved - cause of sexual desires for women

  8. Strived - cause of sexual desires for men

  9. Napumsakaved - cause of sexual desires for both men and women

Manifestation of no-kashayas decreases as spiritual uplift begins. Therefore, we should be careful not only of kashayas but also of no-kashayas.


Krodha (Anger)

 When anger flares we lose our sense of judgment. The virtues like love and forgiveness are destroyed. The anger trigers if someone acts against our wish, if someone causes obstacles in the fulfillment of our desires, or if someone breaches our trust. Everyone wants to stay away from those who become angry easily. Due to anger, friends become foes. No one wants to help an angry person, nor does anyone love him/her. The anger nourishes revenge and therefore, instead of an angry nature we should develop a forgiving and peaceful nature. Not only is anger harmful in this life, but it can bring the bitter consequences into our next lives too. Sometimes, the virtuous people become angry, but they immediately calm down and ask for forgiveness from the people involved. In case if we get angry then instead of staying angry we should also try to calm down. This way, the sin caused by anger would be removed or minimized. We should cultivate virtues such as forgiveness, penance, and repentance.

Mana (Ego)

One who is full of ego looses his sense of judgment and politeness. A proud man invites his own destruction. We can obtain the knowledge only if we are humble. Humility brings good thoughts where there is no room for the pride or ego. Humility is at the root of religion and it is rather difficult to develop religious feelings as long as ego exists.  


Maya (Deceit)  

Deceit is responsible for a dishonest life. Due to deceit one loses friends. Honesty helps to realize the truth. A deceitful person has a little understanding of religion. We should stay from such inclination and try to be honest.


Greed (Lobh)

Lobha (Greed) A greedy person is not satisfied with what he has. To get more, a person may use all the means without caring for the others. We should not forget that our gain is someone else’s loss. The greed prevents us from giving and sharing. We should be content with what we have and only accumulate to meet our needs. We should develop the habit of helping others by offering what we have. Greed destroys the peace and happiness while caring brings them back.